The origin of Georgian words and the historical development of its meaning. Georgian Language is intrinsic to the expression of Georgian culture. It is the mean by which Georgian culture and its traditions and shared values may be conveyed and preserved.
GAMARJOBA/გამარჯობა means Hello in Georgian. "GAMARJOBA" comes from the word “Gamarjveba” (meaning Victory, Triumph).
Therefore while meeting, all Georgians greet and wish to each other successful and victorious day.
SAMSHOBLO/სამშობლო originates from the word “mshobeli”, Georgian for “parent”. Meaning place of birth, place of origin or native land, the word conveys the unshakeable perpetual connection we share with homeland.
TAVISUPLEBA/თავისუგლება means freedom in Georgian. “TAVISUPLEBA” originates from the word “TAVISUPALI” - being free or independent in Georgian.
“TAVI” means self and “UPALI” means the lord/ owner/patron/ in Georgian.
Thus, the word literally reflects the own free will of the person.
KARTVELI/ქართველი is a name of Georgians.
The root of the word “Kartv” is derived from “Kartu”, which has several versions of its origin: an ancient name of Sakartvelo (Georgia), a name of old Kartvelian tribe or a name of old deity “Kartu”. Specialists suggest that the ethnonym “Kartveli (Georgian) was created in the 1st millennium B.C.
DEDAENA/დედაენა - the name of the nation’s historic language is called MOTHER-TONGUE in Georgian language.
For example: Georgian language is Georgian’s mother-tongue.
Deda ( mother) denotes a parent (a woman) in Georgian, but it is used to denote “the main” in a number of composite words. These words are as follows: mother-tongue (deda ena), mother-earth (dedamitsa), mother-opinion (dedaazri), motherland (deda-samshoblo), mother-city (dedaqalaqi)
Therefore the mother-tongue is the main language.
SIKVARULI/სიყვარული means "LOVE" in Georgian.
It is defined as a strong feeling towards somebody by the highest quality of faith, devotion, compassion and acknowledgement of high virtues of the beloved one.
MEGOBARI/მეგობარი denotes a FRIEND in Georgian.
The origin of the word is "guobs" (get used to). The root of the verb is: "shegueba", meaning to assimilate;
Therefore, a friend is considered as the one who shares your heart and mind.
ADAMIANI/ადამიანი means "HUMAN" in Georgian.
It is derived from the word: Adam (the first man) by adding a suffix “ian”, which expresses belonging to the genus/race.
Therefore, this word directly denotes Adam’s gene, Adam’s race.
MADLOBA/მადლობა means "THANK YOU" in Georgian;
MADLOBA derives from a word: “madli”- “grace”
Grace has two key meanings in Georgian:
1. Kindness, virtue, good-doings
2. God’s mercy.
We can comprehend "MADLOBA" as “God’s mercy”.
Therefore, thanking somebody means: God’s mercy to you.
SIKETE/სიკეთე - is the same as being kind, “doing good to others”.
The root of the word lies in “ket/kat” with the original meaning: “(she)mateba” (adding), “she(qmna)” (creating), “keteba” (doing), “gabevreba”( multiplying), “kargis qmna” (doing good). The following words have been derived from the root “ket”: “ket-ili” (kind), “kargis mqmneli” (a virtuous man), ”skhvisatvis kargis msurveli” (wishing good for others), “kargi gulisa” (good-hearted), “satno” (virtuous)
DGESASTSAULI/დღესასწაული - an event, celebration related to some extraordinary occasion, a festive day.
The word derives from uniting two roots: DGE (a day) and SASTSAULI (a miracle);
A day-a time-lapse from dawn to sunset; A miracle - an extraordinary event, unexplainable by the laws of nature.
“MEKVLE”/მეკვლე - TRAIL BLAZER – a track-maker, a path-maker; the one, who makes a path for the family next year. He has to bring happiness and well-being to the host in the coming year.
“MEKVLE” visits a family full of sweets and fruits and congratulates the family on the arrival of the New Year, wishes wealth and abundance to it.
The ““MEKVLEOBA” (trail-blazing) ritual is related to “Bedoba” celebration. A family chooses a “MEKVLE”-the person who will be the one, who first visits and congratulates a family the New Year. The word “MEKVLE” is derived by the composition of the affix me – e, ( usually used for denoting craftsmanship) and “kval” (path).
BEDOBA/ბედობა - the second day of the new year, January 2.
The word is derived in the following way: “bedi” (fate) plus “oba”- an affix, forming abstract words.
Fate is defined as a predefined path of life, providence, destiny. BEDOBA tradition goes back to centuries. It is believed in Georgia that the round year will be the same as you have on BEDOBA day. The second day after the New Year was regarded as the day of future mood and bringing luck.
BEDOBA , according to the old tradition, is met with joyful, delightful and carefree attitude; people congratulate each other and try to spend the day cheerfully, so that the round year be the same as this day. The following words “bednieri” (happy), “sabedo” (fiancée) , “gabedva” (dare), “dabedeba” (bringing luck), “bedistsera” (destiny) are linked with the word-stem- “bed”.
TANASTSORI/თანასწორი - EQUAL means similar/equal in size, power, importance, value or other quality; even.
“STSORI” is the main word in the root, which means equal in old Christian texts,
“TANA” is same as “ertad” (together).
Therefore, we have to understand “TANASTSORI” as “two or more similar, equal data”.
ATINATI/ათინათი is a Georgian word that means the first ray of light that comes into darkness, figuratively it means the first knowledge or the first information.
ATINATI - LIGHT THAT BRINGS GEORGIAN CULTURE INTO FOCUS
AGHDGOMA/აღდგომა – RESSURECTION has the following meanings in the explanatory dictionary of Georgian language:
• Ascending of the Saviour to heaven after the crucifixion
• Coming to life, revival
• The celebration of Christ’s coming back to life after death
• Resurrection – coming back to life after death, returning.
The word "MZE"/მზე is of Georgian origin. Tracing the etymology of the word leads back to roots in the common Kartvelian language. The explanatory dictionary of Georgian language offers the following meanings for the word "MZE" - SUN:
• The ray of this luminous body, light, warmth, flame
• The source of life, happiness (figuratively)
Due to its wide semantics, the word "MZE" is widely used in Georgian word-formation and various types of expressions: ‘mzegrdzeli’ (long-lived), ‘mzetunakhavi’ 'mzetamze' (the most beautiful), chemma mzem’ (I swear by my life), and ‘shenma mzem, ‘shens mzes vfitsav’ (I swear by your life) amongst others.
ERTGULI/ერთგული - FAITHFUL
• One who has a wholehearted disposition towards somebody (or something), who will sacrifice oneself, does not betray, and is overwhelmed with boundless love. One who is modest, reliable, and trustworthy. ERTGULI is a complicated word (composite) unifying two roots:
• The first part forming the word is a numerical noun - one (ERT)
• The second one is a noun (GULI)
A word of similar composition is used to denote the opposite of faithful - orguli (treacherous), [ori (two) + guli (heart)].
Orguli in Georgian is defined as: a hidden enemy, insidious and a traitor.
PURMARILI/პურმარილი - FEAST
Compound carries several semantically similar meanings:
According to the first definition, it is food and drink served to the guest
• A table spread with prepared food and drink,
• Hospitality, meeting a guest generously.
The composite is made by combining two roots - bread and salt.
The adjective is derived from the same word – Purmariliani (generous), which has the same meaning as hospitable and is an important feature of Georgian culture and tradition.
GULUKHVI/გულუხვი - GENEROUS
Guli+Ukhvi = GULUKHVI.
GULI means the heart.
UKHVI means abundant, numerous, many.
According to the Georgian dictionary: GULUKHVI (generous) - a generous giver of all things in copious amounts, who spares nothing for another person; a generous host.
These are synonymous words for “GULUKHVI”- generous: “barakiani” - ბარაქიანი - bounteous; “ushurveli” უშურველი - one who doesn’t spare anything.
“ART IS IMMORTALITY ITSELF” - KONSTANTINE GAMSAKHURDIA
Konstantine Gamsakhurdia (1893-1975) - Georgian writer, classicist, Doctor of Philosophy, distinguished novelist, public figure, translator, author of short stories.
European educated writer produced outstanding works such as “Stealing the Moon”, “David the Builder”, “The Right Hand of the Grand Master”. Gamsakhurdia’s works are noted for their character portrayals of great psychological insight.
"WE MUST CREATE HAPPPINESS" - GALAKTION TABIDZE
The Georgian “King of Poets,” Galaktion Tabidze - (November 17, 1892 – March 17, 1959) - was a poet of the twentieth century, whose writings have profoundly influenced all subsequent generations of Georgian poets. With his incredibly romantic works, Galaktion created his own unique world of poetry, conveying the beauty of Georgian language and revealing the elasticity of words. Galaktion Tabidze authored thousands of poems that established him as one of the greatest Georgian poets, and made an immense impact on modern Georgian literature. His poems have been translated into many languages across the globe.
"LOVE MAKES THE EARTH SPIN" - GURAM DOCHANASHVILI
Guram Dochanashvili (1939 – 2021) was a Georgian prose writer. Dochanashvili debuted as a writer in 1961. He was immediately noted for his rejection of the Soviet literary dogmas of Socialist Realism, and his dissident views. His most popular work is the novel The First Garment (1975) based on the Holy Bible and the story of the War of Canudos in 19th-century Brazil. Dochanashvili’s most renowned pieces are “Man, Who Loved Literature", “Water(po)lo, or ``Rehabilitation Works. An unprecedented large group of 180 people worked to create the theater version of Dochanashvili's "The First Garment" which involved elements of opera, ballet, graphic arts, and drama and was performed at the Georgian State Opera Theatre. Dochanashvili’s short stories have been published in many countries including the United States, Mexico, and Germany.
ERTOBA/ერთობა – CONSENSUAL COEIXISTENCE.
The word “UNITY” has several meanings:
• Unity, unanimity, being of consensual opinion, to be in accord, providing mutual support, solidarity
• Homogeneity, of identical nature, uniformity
• Relationship, connection, having something in common
The word is derived from a combination of the numeral base and the affix “oba” as producer of the abstract noun: one + oba. In Georgian language, the word “ertianoba” (oneness) is used as a synonym of “UNITY”
GHVINO/ღვინო - WINE
is an important concept in Georgian culture and traditions. According to the explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language, it denotes:
• Pressed grapes, a self-fermented intoxicating drink.
According to the canonical definition: "Wine is a product that is obtained as a result of complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of the sweet juice of grapes or its sediments."
The etymology of the word is subject to debate. Some scholars consider it to be a term originating from Mesopotamia, while others believe that it was imported into other languages from the Iberian and Caucasian languages,thus Georgia is a cradle of wine.
According to researchers, the term "wine" must have been used in old Georgian language in the form of “GHVINO / ghuni,” meaning first “vine” and later “wine” itself. The accuracy of this opinion is backed up by the terms that define “wine” in Svan and Laz languages: Mingrelian “ghvin,” Zan “ghin,” Svanetian “ghvinel.” In the word “ghvinel,” “ghvi” means proving i.e. fermentation of yeast dough (Sulkhan-Saba dictionary), swelling (Svan), or boiling. The term “ghvinel” should thus correspond to the boiling (fermenting) of a sweet juice and its transformation into wine.
Vazha-Pshavela (1861 – 1915) was a Georgian writer. Author of over a dozen poems, short stories, and lyrics, the strict customs of Georgia's highland provinces and their occasional clash with personal or humanist principles have been recurring themes in his works.
Vazha-Pshavela, with his unique poems, stories, lyrics, and publicist letters, made a great contribution to the enrichment and development of Georgian literature.
Vazha-Pshavela’s works have been translated into many languages across the globe.